Category Archives: January

Growing Pedro Ximenez in the Swan Valley

 Growing Pedro Ximenez in the Swan Valley

Pedro Ximenez  grow readily in the Swan Valley in Perth’s Western Australia. Pedro Ximenez is a white wine grape best known for the sweet sherries of Spain.  Pedro Ximenez comes to the fore as a fortified wine either as a Sherry style, or as a fortified single-variety wine known as Pedro Ximenez (PX).

Here in the Swan Valley we make the great sweet dessert wines of the world. Once called sherry in Australia, and now called by its varietal name Pedro Ximenez, as the Europeans own the name Sherry.


We have 300 Pedro Ximenez vines planted in our organic vineyard, situated at the top of the Swan Valley, 29 km from Perth, in Western Australia.  Harris Organic Wines is the only organic vineyard and winery in Perth with 3 ha of land.

The vines cover an area of 20,000 square metres. The PX was planted in 2002 as part of our efforts to continue making our great fortified and preservative free dessert wines. However the clone of our Pedro Ximénez is unknown and here they are grown on their own roots and do well.

The vines are planted with 2.1 m spacing. The rows are 3.0m apart. The vines are trained to the wire at 900mm high, and are rod pruned to 5 or 6 buds per rod. The vines are trained on VSP trellis to 1.8m above the ground.

During spring the vines are sprayed with wettable sulphur after rain and bordeaux mixture before any rain events.

The vines are continually maintained with summer pruning. After fruit set the vines are leaf plucked on the south side so that fruit thinning can be performed at veraison.

To reach the highest sugar levels the un-irrigated vines are only allowed to have one bunch of fruit per shoot. This leaves 6-8 bunches per vine and approximately two kilogrammes per vine at 25 Be’.

Site characteristics

Pedro Ximenez is grown at an elevation of just 19m above sea level. Situated 30km from the Indian Ocean, the vineyard is flat, as is the surrounding Swan Valley land. The Pedro Ximenez vines are planted east-west direction in soil that comprises a duplex sandy loam over clay. In January, the site experiences a mean maximum temperature of 33.2°C and a mean minimum temperature of 17°C.  Further, the average annual rainfall over the last 10 years has been 650mm dominated by 140mm averages for June and July. The site doesn’t experience frosts while winds are predominantly south-west in the afternoon, with some easterly gales in spring and autumn.

Trellising and canopy management

The row and vine spacing of the Pedro Ximénez is 3m x 2.1, respectively, and is trellised to a five-wire Vertical Shoot Position (VSP).  Sometimes we practise leaf plucking on the south side of the vines, trimming around Christmas time, shoot thinning and shoot-positioning when putting the wires up in November and bunch thinning to carry the fruit through to 25 Baume.

Irrigation and soil management

The Pedro Ximenez vines are unirrigated. Between rows, we grow lupins, vetch and a mixture of wild radish, soursobs and capeweed to increase soil carbon and nitrogen. Strip digging and ploughing the vine rows in spring produces a dry earth mulch. This helps to conserve soil moisture and help manage weed growth.  Wood chip compost is spread out along the vine inter-rows to act as a fertiliser in autumn.

Pest and disease management

Pedro Ximenez is more susceptible to downy mildew than the other varieties grown here. Furthermore to reduce its susceptibility, we prune the vines late in the season so that budburst is up to two weeks later than the other varieties. Budburst this year occurred on 10 October.


We spur-pruned the Pedro Ximénez to two-bud spurs as recommended by the Handbook of Horticulture and Viticulture of Western Australia. This book was first published by Adrien Despiessis in 1895.  Due to my 1921 second edition of the handbook by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture started to fall apart,  I undertook the task of re-printing this wonderful book on behalf of others as well as myself in 2007. We have the intent of producing a small amount of PX fruit at 25Be for a PX sherry liqueur. After 5 years of spur pruning I have changed the pruning method to cane pruning. This reduces the amount of time required for hand thinning of the shoots during Spring.

Future methods of management

Changing from a four-wire to a five-wire trellis helped reduce hedging time, and increase the verticality of the shoots and changing from spurs to canes, to reduce shoot thinning hand work.


At veraison all excess fruit is removed leaving only one bunch per shoot, i.e., about 12 bunches per vine. A typical analysis of our Pedro Ximénez at harvest: Sugar (Baumé) 25, Acidity (TA) very low with a pH of about 4.0.
We harvest less than a tonne of Pedro Ximénez per year at this sugar level.
Average phenological timing:

Budburst early October
Flowering November
Fruit set December
Veraison late January
Harvest usually about 1st April, sometimes can stretch out to May


Pedro Ximénez fermentation  is carried out on its skins for a few degrees Baume’ before pressing. The fermented juice is returned to tank, prior to fortification. Once fortified with certified organic neutral brandy spirit it is racked and allowed to settle for a few weeks before racking to barriques. Ours is an organic fortified version, fortified with certified organic brandy from the only organic distillery in Australia. We mature our PX for many years  in our underground cellar. The Pedro Ximénez is packaged in 375ml bottles.

Biggest challenge in producing Pedro Ximenez

None really, it’s a matter of learning more about the variety and the terrior as the vines become more mature.  Although it does require a lot of hand work, particularly fruit thinning to improve flavour and ripeness.

Advice to other growers

For best results, the more hand work the better.  Love your vineyard and the vines will perform for you.

Crown thinning Pedro Ximenez
Crown thinning Pedro Ximenez
Autumn Pedro Ximenez
Autumn Pedro Ximenez.
organic vineyard



Silly Plough

At Harris Organic vineyard the undervine weed management has never included any chemical herbicide usage.  Every spring the diesel tractor was used to pull the “silly plough” along the rows to strip away the soil and growth under the vines.  This aids to the health and fitness of the operator and to the communication skills of man and wife. Now you can guess who drove the tractor and who did the yelling!

under vine weeding with a silly plough
Strip digging
under vine weed, hat on, glasses focussed
Are you ready?
plough5 under vine weed
Not too fast!


There is a lot we can learn from the old ways in the Swan Valley region.  At a recent  European  exhibition there was not a single under-vine herbicide machine, they were all mechanical machines. Further this gives some context to the recent decision from the French and Belgium Governments to ban the sale of glyphosate (the active constituent in Roundup).  A large portion of European grape growers are opting for organic/biodynamic vineyards. The progress of the organic movement has allowed the advancement of chemical free options.


Organic vignerons are turning to engineering companies which produce practical, versatile machines that combine a number of operations. These are all changeable to the base unit on the tractor. Then the system uses an under vine blade,  mulcher and a rotary hoe which are easily attached to the side mounted unit. This gives the grape vine grower the ability to adapt to each vineyard situation which is crucial in Australian vineyards due to our varied weed species, vine age and differing soil types.

Here in this video is what we do now in our organic vineyard.

As glyphosate resistance is already a problem across the country, due to normal weeds becoming resistant to herbicides. Then we should all be looking at ways we can manage our weed populations. Also, this can be done effectively, efficiently and in the most sustainable manner by ploughing. In the first instance giving the under vine area a shallow ploughing removes the chemical resistant weeds.

This leads on to the question, “When is glyphosate going to be banned in Australia”?

organic vineyard

Harris Organic Blog

Harris Organic Wines

Harris Organic Blog

Duncan Harris , owner of Harris Organic Wines, has written an organic blog about his organic wines, events and tit bits for your information and education. This is a blog site to his main site of Harris Organic Wines and Organic Vodka websites.

harris organic vineyard
Harris Organic Vineyard






The Harris Organic Wines website link is here.

Harris Organic also has an online wine shop, so if you are unable to get to the Perth Swan Valley cellar door in Western Australia, you may order online where we are able to ship wine anywhere in the world. We have heavily discounted freight to most capital cities in Australia on case sales and discounted postage costs on interstate and overseas deliveries.


harris organic vineyard
organic vineyard

 Long Table Lunches and Events

Events and Long Table Lunches

We hold events and lunches so that people interested in good food and organic wines can come together and enjoy the rural atmosphere at Harris Organic vineyard and winery.

Harris Organic Long Table Lunch
Harris Organic Long Table Lunch

There are many events at Harris Organic winery. Furthermore events such as the crush club, pruning for pizza, sundowners, brandy evenings and long table lunches are part of the events we hold.

To know more about the organic winery, you may join our subscriber list where you receive monthly news. To be the first to know what’s happening and first notice of up coming events., subscribe to our newsletters.

Feel free to ask a question by emailing our winemaker Duncan at any time, how about now! Duncan even has an organic wine club where members can receive the latest vintages, old and rare wines and reserved wines for members only.

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